交流驅動技術導讀

技術報告 TR-022

鄒 應 嶼

電力電子與運動控制實驗室
交通大學 電機與控制工程系所

2000年5月21日


版面製作:王倩瑤      建檔日期:1997/1/8

發展現況 永磁交流馬達
無刷直流馬達 無刷直流馬達規格與參數表
感應馬達的構造、基本原理、與特性 感應馬達參數表
電動機的數學模型與電腦模擬 交流馬達磁場向量控制
直接扭矩控制(DTC) 感應馬達無感測變速控制
自動參數判定 非線性解耦控制
電動機控制簡介 電動機控制導讀
參考文獻索引中心 交流驅動參考文獻分類

電動機控制教課書

  1. Ion Boldea and S. A. Nasar, Electric Drives, CRC Press, Inc., 1999.
  2. R. Krishnan, Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis, and Control, Prentice Hall, 2001.
發展現況
交流馬達是各種馬達中應用最廣泛的馬達,近年來由於電力電子與馬達控制技術的進步,交流馬達驅動器的性能更為精進,應用更為廣泛,價格愈為便宜, 競爭也更為激烈,其中變頻器與交流伺服驅動器是市場上產品更新速度最快、性能價格競爭最激烈的產品,交流驅動技術就是其中的核心技術。 交流驅動技術的發展已有多年之歷史,相關的論文與書籍甚多,下列數篇以報導發展狀況與回顧發展歷史為主,可茲參考。


交流驅動技術是關鍵技術,其發展日新月異!這只是開始!

永磁交流馬達

無刷直流馬達

無刷直流馬達驅動技術的應用,可從兩個觀點來探討:一是採用具有位置回授元件的伺服控制技術,主要應用於需要快速的動態響應(數毫秒)、 寬廣的速控範圍(1,000:1至10,000:1)、精密的轉速與定位控制的場合,如工具機主軸驅動器、各式高性能主軸驅動器。 另一則是不可使用位置回授元件的無感測控制技術,主要應用於環境惡劣、低成本、但仍須具有快速的動態響應(數十毫秒) 與寬廣的速控範圍(100:1)的場合,如高效率的空調與冷凍系統、電動汽機車的驅動系統。 從技術發展的觀點而言,各有其困難之處,前者主要著重於伺服控制技術,後者主要著重於轉速估測技術。

近年來由於環境保護的要求水準日益提高,高效率的空調與冷凍系統已成為未來的發展趨勢,為了有效提升整體效率, 新一代的高效率壓縮機已採用高效率永磁式無刷直流馬達變速驅動方式,微電腦控制變頻器成為其中的關鍵組件。 因此,如何發展低成本、高效率的專用型變頻器,遂成為變頻器廠商重要的研究課題。 無刷直流馬達的轉子由永久磁鐵構成,根據轉子磁通的分佈,可分為:梯形與正弦波兩種。由於轉子磁通分佈的不同, 無刷直流馬達的驅動方式也隨之而異,其轉速估測的方法也不同,因此發展出了各種不同的無感測驅動技術。

  1. TR-128: 無刷直流馬達之DSP閉路控制, [參考文獻], 鄭光耀, Dec. 20, 2000.
  2. TR-135: 無刷直流馬達之無感測控制技術, [參考文獻], 鄒應嶼, June 15, 2000.
  3. TR-046: 無刷直流馬達控制IC之發展, [參考文獻],鄒應嶼, May 24, 2000.
  4. Y. Dote and S. Kinoshita, Brushless Servomotors: Fundamentals and Applications, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990.
  5. J. R. Hendershot and TJE Miller, Design of Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 1994.
  6. Duane C. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
  7. Chap. 1: Basic Concepts
  8. Chap. 2: Magnetic Modeling
  9. Chap. 3: Electrical and Mechanical Relationships
  10. Electro-Craft Co., Ed., Chap. 6: Brushless DC Motors of DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo Systems, including Optical Encoders, An Engineering Handbook by Electro-Craft Corporation, Hopkins, MN, 5th Edition, 1980.
  11. P. Pillay, B. K. Bose, et al., Performance and Design of Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drives, Tutorial Course of the IEEE Industry Applicationns Society Annual Meeting, Dearborn, Michigan, 1991.
  12. P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 35, pp. 537-541, Nov. 1988.
  13. M. F. Rahman, T. S. Low, and L. B. Wee, "Development of a digitally controlled permanent magnet brushless DC drive system," Conference on Applied Motion Control, pp. 283-288, 1986.
  14. DSP Solutions for BLDC Motors, Literature Number: BPRA055, Texas Instruments Europe, March 1997.
  15. Implementation of a speed controlled brushless DC drive using TMS320F240, Literature Number: BPRA064, Texas Instruments Europe, July 1997.
  16. Implementation of a sensorless speed controlled brushless DC drive using TMS320F240, Literature Number: BPRA072, Texas Instruments Europe, November 1997.
  17. S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, "An approach to position sensorless drive for brushless DC motor," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 443-447, 1990.
  18. N. Matsui and M. Shigyo, "Brushless DC motor control without position and speed sensors," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appli., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 120-127, Jan./Feb. 1992.

感應馬達的構造、基本原理、與特性

  1. 交流變速驅動簡介, PEMCLAB 技術報告 TR-003 [參考文獻], 鄒應嶼, 10/30, 1990.
  2. 交流伺服驅動系統簡介, PEMCLAB 技術報告 TR-002 [參考文獻], 鄒應嶼, 10/30, 1995.
  3. B. K. Bose, Chap 2: AC Machines of Power Electronics and AC Drives, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1986.
  4. V. R. Stefanovic and R. M. Nelms, Microprocessor Control of Motor Drives and Power Converters,
    Tutorial Course of the IEEE Industry Applicationns Society Annual Meeting Dearborn, Michigan, Sep. 1991.
電動機的數學模型與電腦模擬
在多數的電機機械教科書中,大多以馬達的等效電路來說明各型電動機的特性,這類特性多以穩態特性為主, 但對高性能的馬達驅動器而言,就必需掌握馬達的動態特性。Prof. Krause 寫了兩本書關於電動機的書,均以 dq-model 為 基礎來分析電動機的動態特性,其中 "Electromechanical Motion Devices" 較著重各型電動機的工作原理與動態特性, 包含感應馬達、同步馬達、無刷直流馬達、步進馬達、兩相伺服馬達、單相感應馬達等。另一本"Analysis of Electric Machinery" 則著重於以 dq-model 為基礎的電動機動態特性分析與電腦模擬,此書較為生硬,如無基本的理論基礎與相當的實務經驗則不易 抓住重點,可作為研究所層次的教課書,對於電動機的理論分析與電腦模型建立,均有深入的探討。 此書的另一特點是對非對稱的電動機之數學模型亦作了深入的理論分析,對於要發展交流馬達電腦輔助設計的研究, 應有相當的助益。Prof. Krause 是普渡大學電機系的教授,也是IEEE 的 Fellow,並發表過上百篇之學術論文, 在電動機控制領域是大師級的學者。

  • S. Williamson and R. C. Healey, "Space vector representation of advanced motor models for vector controlled induction motors," IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 69-77, Jan. 1996.
  • P. C. Krause and O. Wasynczuk, Electromechanical Motion Devices, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1989.
  • P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1987.
  • Chee-Mun Ong, Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998.
  • Y. Kawabata, T. Kawakami, E. C. Ejiogu, and T. Kawabata, "New state-equation of induction motor," IEEE Proceedings Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, pp. 728-734, 2000.

感應馬達磁場向量控制
磁場向量控制由德國西門子公司(Siemens Co.)的F. Blaschke 博士於1972年提出, Dr. Blaschke的指導教授就是 W. Leonhard,Prof. Leonhard任職於德國布朗獅威大學, 著有一書 Control of Electrical Drives,是交流馬達控制的經典之作, Prof. Leonhard在交流驅動有多篇論文發表, 在此領域貢獻卓著,並榮獲IEEE Fellow,其指導之學生楊阿和博士亦曾受邀來台演獎與開授短期課程。

    Original Papers


  • K. Hasse, Zur Dynamik Drehzahlgeregelter Antriebe Mit Stromrichter Gespeisten Asynchron-Kuzschlublaufermaschinen (On the Dynamics of Speed Control of a Static AC Drive with a Squirrel Cage Induction Machine), Ph. D. Dissertation, Techn. Hochschule Darmstadt, 1969.
  • F. Blaschke, "The principle of field orientation as applied to the new TRANSVECTOR closed loop control system for rotating field machines," Siemens Review, vol. 34, pp. 217-220, 1972.
  • K. H. Bayer, H. Waldmann, and M. Weibelzahl, "Field-oriented closed-loop control of a synchronous machine with new transvector control system," Siemens Review, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 220-223, 1972.
  • F. Blaschke, Das Verfahren der Feldorientierung zur Regelung der Drehfeldmaschine (The Method of Field Orientation for Control of Three Phase Machines), Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Braunschweig, 1973.

    Recommended Books


  • D. W. Novotny and T. A. Lipo, Vector Control and Dynamics of AC Drives, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996.

    Recommended Papers


  • A. Hughes, J. Corda, and D. A. Andrade, "Vector control of cage induction motors: a physical insight," IEE Proc., vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 59-68, 1996.
  • W. Leonhard, "30 years space vectors, 20 years field orientation, 10 years digital signal processing with controlled ac-drives, a review (Paer I and II)," Part I: EPE Journal, vol. 1, pp. 13-20, July 1991, and Part II: pp. 89-102, Oct. 1991.
  • G. Diana and R. G. Harley, "An aid for teaching field oriented control applied to induction machine," IEEE Trans., vol. PWRS-4, no. 3, pp. 1258-1261, 1990.
  • R. W. De Doncker and D. W. Novotny, "The universal field oriented controller," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 92-100, Jan./Feb. 1994.
  • W. Leonhard, Adjustable-Speed AC Drives, Proc. IEEE, vol. 76, pp. 455-471, April 1988.
  • E. Y. Y. Ho and P. C. Sen, "Decoupling control of induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 253-262, May 1988.
  • S. Ogasawara, H. Akagi, and A. Nabae, "The generalized theory of indirect vector control for ac machines," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 24, no.3, pp.470-478, May/June 1988.
  • M. Depenbrock, "Direct self-control (DSC) of inverter-fed induction machine," IEEE Tran. Power Electron., vol.3, no. 4, pp. 420-429, Oct. 1988.
  • W. Leonhard, "Microcomputer control of high dynamic performance ac-drive - a survey," Automatica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 1986.
感應馬達的非線性解耦控制 (nonlinear input-output linearization technique)
非線性輸入輸出線性化控制理論[von Raumer, etc., 1994]也被應用於感應馬達的解耦控制, 非線性輸入輸出線性化控制理論由Isidori提出[Isidori, 1989],其理論之出發點主要在於以非線性的數學轉換方法(座標轉換), 將彼此耦合的物理量予以解耦,使原先之非線性系統從另一個新的座標系看來,成為一個線性系統。
  • A. Isidori, Nonlinear Control Systems, 2nd Ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  • T. Von Raumer, J. M. Dion, and J. L. Thomas, "Applied nonlinear control of an induction motor using digital signal processing," IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 327-335, Dec. 1994.
感應馬達無感測變速控制

交流伺服驅動課程講義 以下均為 PDF FILE

Dr. Robert D. Lorenz, University of Wisconsin.


參考文獻

    Referenecs

  1. 交流驅動技術參考文獻分類
  2. 技術報告[TR-002]:交流驅動驅動技術之參考文獻
  3. 技術報告[TR-042]: PWM Inverter電流控制技術之參考文獻
  4. 泛用型變頻器, 鄒應嶼, 1996.
  5. TD05: 永磁式交流同步伺服馬達控制之參考文獻 (1970~1995), 10/30, 1995.

    BOOKS

  6. B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives, IEEE Press, 1997.
  7. D. W. Novotny and T. A. Lipo, Vector Control and Dynamics of AC Drives, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996.
  8. Peter Vas, Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  9. P. Vas, Vector Control of AC Machines, Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
  10. S. Yamamura, Spiral Vector Theory of AC Circuits and Machines, Clarendon Press-Oxford, 1992.
  11. B. K. Bose, Microcomputer Control of Power Electronics and Drives, IEEE Press, New York ,1987.
  12. B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1986.
  13. Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski, The Field Orientation Principle in Control of Induction Motors, [Reviewed by: M. P. Kazmierkowski]
  14. B. K. Bose, Editor, Adjustable Speed AC Drive Systems, IEEE Press, 1986.
  15. S. Yamamura, AC Motors for High-Performance Applications, Analysis and Control, Marcel Dekker, 1986.
  16. W. Leonhard, Control of Electrical Drives, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany 1985.
  17. B. K. Bose, Adjustable speed AC drives - a technology status review, Proc. IEEE, vol. 70, pp. 116-135, Feb. 1982.
  18. J. M. D. Murphy and F. G. Turnbull, Power Electronic Control of AC Motors, Pergamon Press, 1988.
  19. C. V. Johnes, The Unified Theory of Electrical Machines, Butterworths, London, 1967.

    THESIS

  20. Dudi Abdullah Rendusara, Analysis of some application aspects in modern (PWM) adjustable speed drive systems and new solutions, 167 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY (USA), Advisor: Prasad Enjeti, 2000.
  21. Ali Khurram, Position and Speed Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, 152 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of Michigan State University, 2001.
  22. Sanath Alahakoon, Digital Motion Control Techniques for Electrical Drives, 286 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (Sweden), 2000.
  23. Todd Douglas Batzel, Electric Propulsion Using the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor without Rotor Position Transducers, 237 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of the Pensylvania State University, 2000.
  24. Julius Luukko, Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines: Analysis and Implementation, 172 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of LAPPEENRANNAN TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU (FINLAND), 2000,
  25. Chuanyang Wang, Principles, Implementation, and Application of Permanent Magnet Machine Sensorless Technology, 140 pages, Ph.D. Thesis of Electrical Engineering of Ohio State University, (advisor: Longyn Xu) May 2000. [UMI 30 US$]
  26. Limin Zhong, High-Performance Torque and Field Weakening Controllers for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, Ph.D. Thesis of UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (AUSTRALIA), 2000.
  27. Lennart Harnefors, On Analysis, Control and Estimation of Variable-Speed Drives, Ph.D. Thesis of Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, October 1997.
  28. Lennart Harnefors, On Sensorless Adaptive Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Licentiate Thesis of Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, June 1995.
  29. S. P. Waikar, A Low-Cost Low-Loss Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Drive, Ph.D. Thesis of TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, 2001, 151 pages

    PWM Techniques

  30. 課程講義:PWM modulation techniques, 鄒應嶼, 1993.

    PAPERS

  31. L. Umanand and S. R. Bhat, "Optimal and robust digital current controller synthesis for vector-controlled induction motor drive," IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 141-150, March 1996.
  32. Y. Dote, Servo Motor and Motion Control Using Digital Signal Processors, Prentice Hall and Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processing Series, 1990.
  33. I. G. Hansen, "Induction motor control," Proceedings of the IEEE on Aerospace and Electronics Conference, pp. 348-350, 1990
  34. P. Pillay and P. Freere, "Literature survey of PM ac motors and drives," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, USA, 1989.
  35. B. K. Bose, "Technology trends in microcomputer control of electrical machines," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 160-177, Feb. 1988.
  36. P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Development of digital models for a vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor drive," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 476-482, 1988.
  37. P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1987.
  38. P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Application Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motors for Servo Drives," IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 380-390, 1987.
  39. P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Control characteristics and speed controller design for a high performance permanent magnet synchronous motor drive," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 598-606, 1987.
  40. Y. Y. Tzou and H. J. Wu, Modeling, analysis, and digital simulation of digital AC indution servo control system, IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Power Conversion and Industrial Controls, Singpore, Oct. 1986.
  41. R. Lessmeier, W. Schumacher, and W. Leonhard, "Microprocessor - controlled AC - servo driver with synchronous or induction motors: which is preferable ?," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appli., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 812-819, Sept./Oct. 1986.
  42. F. Perion, A. Razek, R. Perret ,and H. Le-Huy, "Torque characteristics of brushless DC motors with imposed current waveform," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 176-181, 1986.
  43. R. H. Comstock, "Trends in brushless permanent magnet and induction motor servo drives," Power Conversion & Motion Control, pp. 4-12, 2nd. quarter, 1985.
  44. R. Krishnan and A.J. Beutler, "Performance and design of an axial field PM synchronous motor servo drive," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 635-640, 1985.
  45. T. Kume and T. Iwakane, "High performance vector controlled AC motor drives: applications and new technologies," IEEE IAS Conf. Rec., pp. 690-697, 1985.
  46. D. Pauly, G. Pfaff, and A. Weschta, "Brushless servo drives with permanent magnet motors or squirrel cage induction motos - a comparison," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, pp. 503-509, 1984.
  47. B. K. Bose, "Motion control technology - present and future,"
  48. E. L. Owen, "Power electronics and rotating machines - past, present and future," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 3-11, 1984.
  49. S. C. Hibbard, "Why ac servo are gaining momentum," IEEE Machine Tools Conf. Rec., pp.73-78, 1983.
  50. E. L. Douville, "Selection and application of variable speed motor drive systems," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appli., vol. 18, pp. 698-702, Nov./Dec. 1982.
  51. D. B. Jones, "Performance characteristics of DC motors, both brush and brushless in incremental motion systems," Proc. of the Motorcon Conference, pp. 392-407, 1982.
  52. E. K. Persson, "Brushless DC motors - a review of the state of the art," Proceedings of the Motorcon Conference, pp. 1.16, 1981.
  53. R. A. Morgan, "A status report: ac drive technology," IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 543-547, 1981.

    Slip Control of Induction Motors

  54. A. Abbondanti and M. B. Brennen, "Variable speed induction motor drives use electronic slip calculator based on motor voltages and currents," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appli., vol. 11, no. 5, Sep/Oct 1975.

    Selection of AC Motors and Drives

  55. J. J. Pollack, "Some guidelines for the appliction of adjustable-speed ac drives," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appli., pp.704-710, Nov./Dec. 1973.


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