DSP數位控制簡介

技術報告 TR-024

鄒 應 嶼

電力電子與運動控制實驗室
交通大學 電機與控制工程系所

2000年1月20日


版面製作:王倩瑤    瀏覽次數: (since 1996/11/15)   建檔日期:1995/3/12

1. 簡 介
2. DSP的硬體架構
3. 以DSP為基礎的數位控制系統
4. 微處理器/數位信號處理器的控制功能
5. 數位控制系統設計
6. 參考文獻

1. 簡介

數位信號處理器(Digital Signal Processor, DSP)的設計主要即在於以數位計算的方式 進行信號處理,因而先天上即具有強大的數值計算能力,主要應用於電腦繪圖、儀器量測、影像語音、控制通訊等領域, 表1.1列出了DSP的一般應用[11],[19], [20], [21]。DSP也可視為一個具有強大計算能力的微處理器, 因此舉凡微處理器可以應用的場合,如需要更快速的計算能力,則可考慮使用DSP。但值得注意的是,單晶片微控器(microcontroller, mC)已廣泛應用於工業控制領域,其關鍵主要在於完整的I/O界面, 而一般的DSP並不具備這些功能。

在工業控制的應用領域,如機器人控制、磁碟機與光碟機的控制、伺服控制等[54], [56], [58], [59], 採用DSP來實現數位控制器的主要著眼點即在於其快速的計算能力, 表1.2列出一些主要微處理器與DSP在執行一個典型的PID控制迴路所能達到的取樣頻率[23]。

由於DSP的快速計算能力,因而具有廣泛應用的潛力,採用DSP來實現需要複雜計算的數位控制系統, 以達到高性能控制系統的需求即為未來發展的趨勢。因此有眾多的半導體製造商投入高性能DSP的開發, 表1.3列出一些廠商所提供的DSP晶片,表1.4列出一些支援廠商所提供的軟硬體發展工具。

表1.1 DSP的一般應用

General-Purpose DSP
Digital Flitering
Convolution
Correlation
Hilbert Transforms
Fast Fourier Transforms
Adaptive Flitering
Windowing
Waveform Generation
Graphics Imaging
3-D Rotation
Robot Vision
Image Transm./Comp.
Pattern Recognition
Homomorphic Processing
Image Enhancement
Workstations
Animation/Digital Map
Instrumentation
Spectrum Analysis
Function Generation
Pattern Matching
Seismic Processing
Transient Analysis
Digital Flitering
Phase-Locked Loops
Voice/Speech
Voice Mail
Speech Vocoding
Speech Recognition
Speaker Verification
Speech Enhancement
Speech Synthesis
Text-to-Speech
Control
Disk Control
Servo Control
Robot Control
Laser Printer Control
Engine Control
Motor Control
Military
Secure Communications
Radar Processing
Sonar Processing
Image Processing
Navigation
Missile Guidance
Radio Frequency Moderms
Telecommunications
Echo Cancellation
ADPCM Transcoders
Digital PBXs
Line Repeaters
Channel Muliplexing
Adaptive Equalizers
DTMF Encoding/Decoding
Digital Speech Interpolation

FAX
Cellular Telephones
Speaker Phones
X.25 Packet Switching
Video Conferencing
Moderms
Data Encryption
Spread Spectrum Comm.
Automative
Engine Control
Vibration Analysis
Antiskid Brakes
Adaptive Ride Control
Global Positioning
Voice Commands
Digital Radio
Navigation
Consumer
Radar Detectors
Power Tools
Digital Audio/TV
Music Synthesizer
Educational Toys
Industrial
Robotics
Numeric Control
Security Access
Power Line Monitors
Medical
Hearing Aids
Patient Monitoring
Ultrasound Equipment
Diagnostic Tools
Prosthetics
Fetal Monitors

表1.2 PID數位控制取樣頻率

Microprocessor
Clock
fs
8086

Z8000

68000

32010

320C14

320C25
8 MHz

5 MHz

10 MHz

25 MHz

25 MHz

25 MHz
2 KHz

2 KHz

4 KHz

34 KHz

43 KHz

70 KHz

表1.3 一些典型的DSP

Signal processors
Type
Availiable
NEC
Texas Instr.
Fujitsu
STC
Texas Instr.
Texas Instr.
Nat. Semi.
Analog Dev.
Phillips
Thomson
Motorola
Nat. Semi.
NEC
NEC
mPD 7720
TMS 32010
MB 8764
DSP 128
TMS 32020
TMS 320C25
LM 32900
ADSP 2100
PCB 5011
TS 68930
DSP 56000
LM 628
mPD 77220
mPD 77230
U
U
U
U
U
U
U C
U C
U
U
U
A
U
U F
1982
1983
1984
1985
1985
U universal
C processor core (external memory)
A algorithm-specific
F floating-point arithmetic

為了推展DSP的應用,一些DSP的製造商通常會提供評估模組(evaluation kit), 這些評估模組通常包含一個以DSP為核心的電路板及相關的支援軟體;這些電路板一般具有記憶體、 高解析度的類比/數位及數位/類比轉換器。支援軟體則包含組合語言組譯器(assembler)、C語言編譯器(compiler)、 載入器(loader)與偵錯器(debugger)等。DSP雖然均具有快速的計算能力, 但其種類繁多,硬體架構亦不同,對各別應用的適用性也有所不同,因此設計工程師在選用DSP時, 不僅需要考慮其計算速度、價格、軟體支援能力、與供貨能力等,其應用上的特殊功能亦是重要考慮因素。 例如TI的TMS320C14特別適合於數位控制的應用,而TM320C40則是為列陣信號處理而設計的。

表1.4 DSP與其支援發展工具

Manufacturer
Evaluation kit
Price
(USS)
DSP chip
Included software
Analog Devices
EZ-Kit
$499
ADSP-2101
C compiler, simulator, and demo programs for DTMP, FFT, filter, speech processing, graphics, and music applications.
Array Microsystems
a66550/8K
$9900
a66111
Control software, code generator, and an assembler.
AT&T Microelectronics
ATT93C010EK
$2499
ATT93C0101
Two assemblers (microcontroller and DSP chip), sample DSP chip),sample disk-servo and head-actuator code.
MP3210
$4995
Two DSP32102
C host drivers, demos, and utilities. An optional Multimedia software package with a C compiler, simulator, and applications libratry costs $3000.
GEC Plessy
FFT Processor Evaluation System
$5380
PDSP16510
Graphics-based software control program, C-routine library.
Motorola
DSP56156 Application
Development System
$3000
DSP56001
Assembler, linker, and simulator cost $495 for a PC or Apple Macintosh; $5500 for Sun3 workstations.
M68HC16Z1EVB
$375
68HC16Z1
Control software, macro assembler, filter-design package, real-time kernel, floating-point routine, and a C compiler demo.
SGS-Thomson
ST1893X HDS
$10,000
ST18932
Macro assemble, emulation-control software
Star Semiconductor SPROC1ab Development System
$8950
SPROC-1400
Block-diagram editor and compiier, signal-processing and filter-design libraries, loader, and a debugger.
Texas Instruments Multimedia Developer's Toolkit
$5000
TMS320C313
C compiler; debugger; nad algorithms for image and speech compression/ decompression, music functions, and fax.
TMS320C1XEVM
$795
TMS320C16
Assembler, linker, and demo software.
TMS320C2XEVM
$995
TMS320C26
Assembler, linker, and demo software.
TMS320C3XEVM
$995
TMS320C304
Assembler, linker, and demo software.
TMS320C5XEVM
$995
TMS320C50
Assembler, linker, and demo software.
Zilog
Z86C9500ZC0
Evaluation Kit
$200
Z86C951
Sample assembly-language routines; assembler available from third-party vendors.
Z86C66 V.22bis
Modem Kit
$200
Z89C65 or Z89C661
2400-bps modem or speech-compression firmware.
Notes:

1. This processor contains both a general-purpose microcontroller and a DSP chip.
2. Also available from Ariel
3. Evaluation board also works with TMS320C31 and TMS320C40 DSP chips.
4. Also available from Atlanta SignalProcessors


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