UPS爵传瑈竟ぇDSPユ瑈铆溃北
DSP Control of a HalfBridge UPS Inverter for Sinusoidal Voltage Regulation with Robust Performance
讲瓣订狶▅﹙筈莱垃
ユ硄厩 筿筿垂砞璸籔DSP北龟喷
20055る6ら
Technical Report: TRUP08.DSP Control of a HBInverter for AC Voltage Regulation
Digital Control of a HalfBridge UPS Inverter Provides Robust Performance!
Abstract
This report presents the design and implementation of a DSPcontrolled halfbridge UPS inverter for sinusoidal voltage regulation under large nonlinear load variations. The halfbridge commonneutral acdcac converter is a major choice in the design of lowpower singlephase doubleconversion uninterruptible power supply systems due to its simple and robust hardware architecture. Several control topologies for singlephase uninterruptible power system (UPS) inverters are presented and compared, with the common objective of providing a dynamically stiff, low total harmonic distortion (THD), sinusoidal output voltage. A multiple rate digital controller generates all the PWM control signals for the power stage by using a set of synchronously detected feedback signals. Software current control scheme with nonlinear pulsewidth compensation has been developed to eliminate the nonlinearity caused by the deadlock protected PWM converters. A fullstate feedback decoupling control scheme utilizing both filter inductor current and output current feedback to augment output voltage control. Digital control techniques have been developed to solve the control problems for voltage regulation and power factor correction under large nonlinear load variations. Experimental verifications has been carried out to evaluate the proposed control scheme.
Index Terms: UPS inverters, digital control topology, DSP control, output impedance, total harmonic distortion, halfcycle control scheme.
1. Introduction
Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) are used to supply clean and uninterrupted power to critical loads, e.g., computers, medical/life support systems, communication systems, industrial controls, etc., under any normal or abnormal utility power conditions, including outages from a few milliseconds up to several hours duration. This holdup time is totally dependent upon the size of the critical load and the energystorage capabilities built into the UPS powering this critical load. In order to supply output power in the absence of the input power, the UPS employs some form of bulk energystorage mechanism. Most UPS systems use valveregulated leadacid batteries or glass matte starved electrolyte batteries for this purpose. These maintenancefree batteries are the most widely used energy storage devices because of their portability and low maintenance requirements.
1.2 Research Background and Status
The marketing development of UPS can categorized as singlephase offline and interactive UPSs for personal computers in lowpower applications, singlephase online UPSs for servers, communication equipments, etc. in medium power applications, and threephase online and lineinteractive UPSs for data centers, critical manufacturing equipments in large power applications. Various UPS topologies have been developed to fit different application requirements [Karve 2000, Krishnan and Srinivasan 1993, Krishman 1995].
The goal of the UPS inverters is to maintain the desired output voltage waveform over all loading conditions and transients. In the past, sinewave inverters relied on openloop feedforward control to produce the shape of the waveform, while a relatively slow output voltage rms feedback loop regulated the magnitude. While these types of controllers could maintain a desired steadystate rms output voltage, their response to step changes in load were noticeably slow (several cycles of the output waveform), and nonlinear loads could greatly distort their output voltage waveform. Today, various modern feedback control techniques are available to control the output voltage waveform continuously, rather than on an rms basis. These socalled "instantaneous" controllers offer many performance advantages including faster (subcycle) transient response, better total harmonic distortion (THD), and improved disturbance rejection via lower output impedance.
Closedloop regulated pulsewidth modulated (PWM) dcac converters have found their wide applications in various type of ac power conditioning systems, such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) systems, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, distributed power generators, standalong PV inverters, and programmable ac source (PAS) systems. In these applications, the PWM dcac converters are required to maintain a sinusoidal output waveform under various type of loads and this can only be achieved by employing feedback control technique.
Various control schemes have been developed for the UPS inverters to maintain a highquality sinusoidal output voltage under highly nonlinear rectifier loads. The control architecture of a UPS inverter can classified as control topologies and control algorithms. The control topology is defined as the control configurations using various feedforward and feedback controller via the reference and measured state variables. The control algorithm is defined as the control law employed in the feedback and feedforward controllers. The development of control topologies and control algorithms for modern power electronic converters is significantly influenced by the realization technology. The UPS controller can be realization by using conventional analog control ICs with a microcontroller, or by using a programmable logic device such as FPGA with a microcontroller, or by suing a singlechip DSP controller [Digital Realization of UPS Controllers]. Fig. 1 shows the functional block diagram of a DSPembedded UPS controller for the digital control of a singlephase doubleconversion UPS system. The DSPembedded UPS controller consists of a singlechip DSP controller and dedicated interface hardware and software designed for the interface and control of a UPS system. This paper presents the synreport of the digital controller of the UPS inverter for the ac voltage regulation.
Figure 1.1 DSPembedded UPS controller for the digital control of a singlephase doubleconversion UPS.
Progress of DSP Controller
The innovation of DSP control into power electronic designs is an excellent example of the advantages provided by major technological advances. By replacing classic analog control with DSPbased digital control, the primary advantages are achieved by replacing hardware with flexible software. The advantages are even more dramatic because they donˇt just extend to reducing cost and increasing performance over classic designs. By using the DSPbased software control technologies, many advantages can be obtained such as cost reduction due to software replacement of hardware components, standardization of design procedures across an entire product line, reutilization of software intellectual properties, and increased performance.
In order to achieve real time digital control of UPS systems, designers turned to highspeed digital signal processors (DSPs) now capable of executing over 30 million instructions per second (MIPS). In operation, DSPs compare software reference signals with actual readings from the inverter, and then perform highspeed calculations to produce output values for PWM inverter control. There are many advantages in using a DSP to replace analog circuitry including stable system parameters free from the effects of aging and temperature drift. In addition, control system upgrades can be implemented in software, making the latest features available to any compatible UPS without changes to the hardware.
The control software also provides users with more complete operating and historical data in the form of clear readout monitors. The UPS operating information can also be accessed remotely by modem or control panel for monitoring, adjustment of operating parameters, diagnostics and softwarebased repairs. Finally, lower maintenance costs can be realized due to selfcalibration features and remote servicing.
Development of Control Topology
The control topology or control configuration of a closedloop controlled system plays an important role in the synreport of the controller. Several control topologies have been developed to solve the control problem for a singlephase PWM inverter with an LC output filter. Reference [Ryan 1997] has made an evaluation of four state feedback control topologies. Two basic feedback topologies are explored: 1) filter inductor and load current sensing and 2) filter capacitor current sensing, where both approaches use a fullstate command structure. For the case of inductor current feedback, two methods of load current decoupling will be considered. In the case of capacitor current feedback, a Luenbergerstyle observer for capacitor current will also be considered in lieu of a current sensor. All controllers presented employ active decoupling of both the dc bus and the "backEMF" of the output voltage. The output dynamic stiffness (inverse of output impedance) of each controller is evaluated and compared on a single plot. Experimental results reveal that the capacitor current feedback controller topology can achieve a highest dynamic stiffness performance.
Although frequencydomain based analog control schemes are predominantly used in compensator design of power converters, there are several drawbacks that hinder the performance of analog controllers, such as temperature drift, aging effect, complexity in component adjustment, and susceptibility to EMI. With the rapid progress in microelectronics technology, digital control of power converters using advanced microcontroller and digital signal processor (DSP) becomes an active research area [Modern Digital Control Schemes].
Development of Control Schemes for UPS Inverter
During the past several years, various closedloop control schemes for the PWM inverter with instantaneous feedback by using analog techniques have been proposed to achieve both good dynamic response and low harmonic distortion. These control schemes can be classified as analog and digital control schemes due to their realization method. Because the advantages provided by using digital control scheme with modern DSP realization, the digital control scheme has become a predominated choice for the control of a modern UPS system. In the followings, we made a review of the development of conventional analog and modern digital control schemes for the closedloop regulation of UPS inverters.
Conventional Analog Control Schemes
The instantaneous feedback control with adaptive hysteresis regulates the PWM inverter with direct current and voltage feedback [Kawamura and Hoft 1984]. This control scheme changes the hysteresis width as a function of the voltage reference, but its dynamic responses to large loads change or rectifier types of load are left unsolved. Instantaneous voltage feedback with an inner adaptive hysteresisband current loop controller was also developed for the control of PWM inverters [Bose 1990]. This control scheme can reduce the excessive current ripples produced by the conventional fixed hysteresisband current controller. The realization of the adaptive hysteresisband current controller requires a microcontroller to generate a analog output to modify the hysteresis band of an analog hysteresis comparator.
Modern Digital Control Schemes
Deadbeat Control
Microprocessorbased deadbeat control technique has been applied to the closedloop regulation of PWM inverters for UPS applications [Gokhale 1985, Kawamura 1988]. Five different schemes for digital feedback control of PWM inverter are proposed, and compared through simulations and experiments [Kawamura 1990]. These five are 1) resistive load based DB (deadbeat) control, 2) disturbance observer based deadbeat control I, 3) disturbance observer based deadbeat control II, 4) internal model principle based pole placement, and 5) digital PI control. It is found in this study that the control law of internal model principle based pole placement control scheme was unstable for nonlinear load and is infeasible for practical applications. The resistive load based deadbeat control scheme will result a larger fundamental voltage in case of no load due to the assumption of a constant resistive load. Another demerits of the control scheme is the output voltages becomes unbalanced for unbalanced load. The disturbance observer based deadbeat control scheme has the best performance among these five control schemes, especially under no load and unbalanced load conditions. However, the output voltage waveform is still seriously distorted.
The deadbeat control theory is based on the inverse discrete model of the plant to be controlled to reach a response with a zero steadystate error within a finite settlingtime interval to a specific reference input. However, the designed deadbeat controller based state feedback or observer by using pole placement technique for specific reference regulation system is usually not suitable for tracking system with arbitrary reference. Another demerit of the deadbeat control scheme is that excessive actuating signal may be required in order to reach a deadbeat response. This results high ratings for the power devices. The deadbeat controller for a power converter is also very sensitive to parameter variations of the load and saturation limits of the power device. Therefore, in practical situations, the deadbeat controller is usually tuned to get a relaxed deadbeat response. Further investigations of applications of deadbeat control schemes to closedloop regulation on PWM inverters have been studied [Kawamura and K. Ishihara 1988, Yokoyama 1994, Koga 1994, Hua 1995, Malesani 1999, Kukrer 1999]. In summary, the deadbeat control scheme can reach the fastest dynamic response, however, it also has the disadvantages of highly sensitive to parameter and load variations and requiring large peaktoaverage ratio of control signals to achieve deadbeat effect. For the inner current loop control of the PWM inverter, there only exists one system parameter, the filter inductance. This filter inductance is a known parameter and if the inductor is kept not saturated it is usually within ∮10% ranges due to temperature and flux variations. If other related system variables can be measured, such the dclink voltage, inductor current, and output filter capacitor voltage, the deadbeat control scheme is very suited for the current loop control to reach a robust deadbeat response.
Voltage Variation Compensation Control
The deadbeat control scheme of a UPS inverter for ac voltage regulation is to control the output voltage of the next sampling instant to reach a deadbeat response. In these control schemes, the output voltage for the next sampling instant is compensated, but the inclination of voltage at the sampling instant is not considered. To minimize the cost of the inverter, the output LC filter component should be small, but an extreme small output LC filter causes the output voltage ripple. In reference [Yokoyama 2000], a voltage variation compensation method has been proposed to control not only the output voltage but also the derivative of the output voltage. This control scheme has advantage of elimination of the beat phenomena of the inverter output voltage when the output LC filter is very small. However, this control scheme also requires a sampling frequency of double the inverter PWM carrier frequency, which results higher computation load for the microprocessor implementation.
Multiloop RealTime Control & Predictive Control
Realtime instantaneous control schemes based on the discretization of conventional instantaneous analog control schemes have also been developed for the closedloop regulation of PWM inverters. Reference [Kawamura 1990] developed a digital PI control scheme by sampling two state variables (output voltage and load current) and with an inductor current estimator to generate PWM duties for output voltage regulation. The proposed control scheme is verified on a singlephase 115V, 60 Hz, 2KVA UPS with a dclibk voltage of 170 V and a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The sampling frequency is set as the same as the PWM switching frequency and the proposed controller is realized by using the TMS320C14. Very low THD of the output voltage under rated rectifier load has been obtained.
Reference [Jung 1997, Tzou 1998] proposed a multiloop control scheme by using the instantaneous feedback of the inductor current and output voltage with a feedforward contoller. The multiloop digital controller consists of a current controller, a voltage controller, and a feedforward controller. A software current control scheme has been developed to achieve fast current control of the PWM inverter and decouple the inductor of the output filter. This control scheme can achieve fast dynamic response for step load changes and has low output voltage THD under rectifier loads.
Further investigations on applications of discretization of conventional analog control techniques with computation delay compensation or predictive control modification have been studied [Buso 2001, Mihalache 2002, Jiang 1998, Zargari 1995, Ito 1995, Sun1995, Kubo 1991]. In summary, these control schemes have advantages of using familiar analog design approach with digital realization while they also suffer from a high sampling rate and need to devise compensation scheme for the sampling and computation delay.
Sliding Mode Control
Discrete sliding mode control (DSMC) technique has been developed for the regulation of PWM inverters [Jezernik 1990, Carpita 1993, Pinheiro 1994, Jung 1996, Muthu 1998, Tai 2002]. The main advantage of the DSMC scheme is its insensitivity to parameter variations and load disturbances, which leads to invariant steadystate response in the ideal case, while its disadvantages are that it is not easy to find an appropriate sliding surface and its performance will be degraded with a limited sampling rate. Another drawback of the sliding mode control scheme is the chattering phenomena when tracking a variable reference which degrades the overall system efficiency.
Repetitive Control
In most ac power conditioning systems, phase controlled nonlinear loads are major sources of waveform distortion. Due to the periodic characteristics in voltage regulation, this type of nonlinear load results in periodic distortion in its output waveform. Repetitive control theory [Nakano and Hara 1986, Hara 1988, Tomizuka1988], which originates from the internal model principle [Francis and Wonham 1975], provides a solution to eliminate periodic errors in a nonlinear dynamic system. A number of modified repetitive control schemes have been developed for use in various industrial applications. Repetitive control theory has also been applied to a PWM inverter employed in UPS systems to generate high quality sinusoidal output voltage [Haneyoshi, Kawamura, and Hoft 1988]. Reference [Tzou 1997] presented a twolayer repetitive control scheme to minimize the periodic distortion induced by the rectifiertype loads of a programmable ac power source. The proposed twolayer controller consists of a tracking controller and a repetitive controller. Pole assignment with state feedback has been employed in designing the tracking controller for transient response improvement and a repetitive control scheme was developed in synthesizing the repetitive controller for steadystate response improvement. Experimental verification has been carried out on a 2 kVA PWM inverter system. Total harmonic distortion (THD) below 1.4% for a 60 Hz output voltage under a bridgerectifier RC load with a current crest factor of 3 has been obtained. Experimental results show that the DSPbased fully digitalcontrolled PWM inverter can achieve both good dynamic response and low harmonics distortion.
Reference [Rech 2003] proposed a model reference controller with a repetitive control action for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications. The model reference controller modifies the structure of the plant so that the closedloop transfer function is equal to a chosen reference model transfer function, whereas the repetitive control action minimizes periodic distortions caused by unknown periodic disturbances.
1.3 Research Motivations
This research is based on the following motivations to solve the digital control problems of dcac converters used in highperformance UPS systems.
Consider the HalfBridge Inverter as a Basic Power Conversion Module
Develop a Design Criterion Based on Voltage THD Specification
Construct a Systematic Design and Realization Procedure
These design and realization issues are further addressed as followings.
HalfBridge Inverter as a Intelligent Inverter Module
The halfbridge acdc converter plays a very important role in utilityinterface and ac supplying power converters. The halfbridge inverter has inherent bidirectional power flow capability and can be used for both interface interface and ac & dc power supplying. The halfbridge inverter with doubleswitch can be constructed as a programmable and configurable basic power conversion module. Digital control and monitoring functions can be developed based on a singleDSP controller and integrated with the power semiconductor devices to form an intelligent inverter module. Highside gate drives and current sensors can be integrated with the power modules to simplify the system integration and reduce electromagnetic interference. Highspeed serial interface using ring network communication protocols with optical isolation can be developed for the integration of these intelligent inverter modules to construct more sophisticated highpower converters. This paper develops the digital control techniques for the control of the inverter bridge for highperformance programmable power sources.
Low THD with LowSwitching Frequency Control Scheme
There have been some research on the digital control of PWM inverters for ac voltage regulation, while theoretical analysis and realization of the digital controller still need a further study. Digital control techniques can be used to improve the dynamic responses as well as the minimization of the switching losses and electromagnetic interference.
Control of the UPS inverter switching is important to minimize the harmonic content of the output voltage. The difficulty in successful switching control operation stems from the output impedance of the inverter filter. Much attention has been focused on providing a near zero output impedance inverter stage which in theory would provide near zero distortion of the output voltages, independent of the load conditions. Low output filter impedance can be realized via a high inverter switching frequency. However, in high power applications the switching frequency is limited to 12 kHz, which precludes the capability of lowering the filter output impedance.
Thus, modem UPS systems minimize the harmonic content of the inverter output voltage through the use of complex filtering schemes employing large passive components. In addition, a number of PWM techniques have been investigated to compensate for the filter output impedance and reduce the output voltage distortion. Real time PWM control of the inverter output voltages provides the ability to dynamically adapt to changing load conditions. Digital random PWM control techniques can be developed to smooth high frequency spectra induced by the switching frequency.
Systematic Design Procedure
With the availability of 16bit highperformance DSP chips, most of its instructions can be accomplished in one instruction cycle, complicated control algorithms can be executed with fast speed. Realization of sophisticated digital control algorithms using advanced DSP has been a development trend for modern power electronic systems. However, there still exists many design and realization issues in application of digital control schemes. These include delay effect due to sampling delay and computation delay, quantization effect due to limited resolution of the analogtodigital converters, rounding effect due to limited bit length, sampling noise due to switching of power devices, crossover distortion due to and deadtime protection, and DSP programming skills such as page addressing management, interrupt mechanism and scheduling, Qformat arithmetic, etc. Although some of the above mentioned design issues also exist in an analogcontrolled power electronic systems, however, the analog controller is a true realtime controller, and it exhibits inherent lowpass filtering characteristics for random high frequency noises. On the other hand, although the digital controller has a higher noise rejection capability due to its digital circuitry in nature, noises coupling to the A/D converters may result large noises at the sampling frequency, and this will seriously deteriorate the digital controller performance.
Summary
This report focuses on the development of a DSPembedded UPS controller with special emphasis put on the development of digital control scheme for the PWM inverter to achieve low output impedance to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the UPS output voltage due to specified nonlinear rectifier load. This paper describes the design and implementation of a DSPbased fully digitalcontrolled singlephase pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter for ac voltage regulation. The proposed digital controlled PWM inverter system employs a singlechip digital signal processor (DSP) to realize a multiloop control scheme with sinusoidal reference. The PWM gating signals are determined at every sampling instant by the proposed multiloop digital control scheme using a set of detected feedback signals. The development of advanced singlechip DSP controllers makes it possible to realize sophisticated control schemes.
1.4 Report Organization
This report focuses on the analysis and synreport of a robust digital control scheme for the ac voltage regulation of a halfbridge UPS inverter under large load variations and uncertainties. We propose a multipleloop state feedback decoupling control scheme for the closedloop regulation of PWM inverters used for highperformance doubleconversion UPS. The control scheme has been realized by using a lowcost singlechip digital signal processor. The report is organized as follow.
Chapter one makes a description of current development status of digital control schemes for singlephase UPS inverters. Special emphasis is focused on the development of singlechip DSP controller in applications to the digital control of motor drives and power converters. The concept of DSPembedded UPS controller is introduced. Some digital control schemes for the digital control of PWM inverters for the ac voltage regulation have been reviewed.
Chapter two makes an introduction to doubleconversion UPS. This chapter also presents the development of commonneutral acdcac converters in applications to singlephase and threephase UPS systems. It can observed that the halfbridge inverter form the basis among these developed commonneutral topologies. This chapter also makes an analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the singlephase halfbridge inverters.
Chapter three makes an analysis of the halfbridge inverter used for a doubleconversion UPS.
Chapter four makes a survey of developed control topologies and control schemes for the closedloop control of UPS inverter for ac voltage regulation.
Chapter five introduces the proposed digital multipleloop decoupling control scheme for the closedloop regulation of a PWM inverter.
Chapter six makes a simulationoriented analysis of the digitalcontrolled halfbridge inverter for ac voltage regulation. The output impedance is the most important performance measure of the UPS inverter. To verify the proposed control scheme, the output impedance of the UPS inverter is derived and calculated using MATLAB. The output impedance is also calculated based on a digitalcontrolled halfbridge inverter using PSIM.
Chapter seven addresses the realization issues of the proposed digital inverter control scheme using a singlechip DSP controller, the TMS320F2407A. Some practical realization issues for the digital control of PWM inverters for the ac voltage regulation have been addressed.
Chapter eight gives some experimental results to verify the proposed digital multipleloop decoupling control scheme. Chapter nine remarks the conclusions and makes some comments on further researching issues.
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I.
Modern Digital Control Schemes: Sliding Mode Control
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Q. Realization of Digital
Controller
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W. PFC Control of the
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芖穝λユ硄厩筿筿垂砞璸籔DSP北龟喷 
Copyright © 19872004 by DigitalPowerLab, NCTU, TAIWAN 
Author: Prof. YingYu Tzou
Affiliation: Power Electronics IC Design and DSP Control Lab., NCTU, Hsinchu, Taiwan
TRUP08.DSP Control of a HBInverter for AC Voltage Regulation
Last update: 2005/5/6