專題研究


高功因電源轉換器

PFC Adapter

2001年7月1日

徐建成、鍾偉煌、鄒應嶼


交通大學 電機與控制工程系

前 言

      日常生活中許多的電子資訊與家電產品都需要一個電源轉換器(adapter),其功能是將一般的交流電源(110/220V, 50/60Hz)轉換為低電壓的直流電源,如12V, 5V, 3.3V等等,由與此類需求急速增加,adapter也成為一個重要的電子資訊設備附屬產品,具有龐大的市場發展潛力。 

       近年來世界先進國家為了降低電源諧波污染與提升電力使用效能,紛紛製訂電源諧波法規,限制電器產品在交流電源產生的低頻諧波干擾,由於這些諧波直接影響到電源的功率因數(power factor),因此功率因數修正(power factor correction, PFC)也就成為電源供應器設計的重要技術。具有功率因數修正的電源轉換器(adapter),就稱之為PFC adapter。

 

 

簡  介

      電源轉換器根據其輸入級是否具有功率因數修正的功能,可分為一般型(adapter)與PFC adapter兩類,根據其輸出電源的組數,又可分為單組輸出與多組輸出兩類。新型的adapter多是具有功率因數修正的PFC adapter,單組輸出的PFC adapter多採用單級式電源轉換架構,多組輸出的PFC adapter則多採用兩級式電源轉換架構。此外,adapter的額定功率也是決定決定其電路架構的重要原因,一般大於200W的adapter,多採用兩級式電源轉換架構。

 

Example of a PFC Adapter

Features
◆ Size: 5.8*3.6*1.9 inches
◆ Package: molded UL94V-0 plastic enclosure 
◆ Power factor corrected 
◆ High power density, up to 3.1 watts/inch3 
◆ Regulated output with low ripple 
◆ Over-voltage protection 
◆ Over--current and short circuit protection 
◆ EN55022 class B 
◆ UL, CSA and VDE safety approvals 
◆ Modified and custom designs available 

TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF PFC ADAPTERS

OUTPUT SPECIFICATION

Line regulation
<0.5%
Total regulation(including voltage drop in cable)
<5%
Startup time
3S maximum
Overshoot/Undershoot
At turn on
<5%
Transient response
50% to 100%
load step
5% max dex
2ms recovery
Over/voltage protection
inherent
Peak output power limit
150W max
Short circuit protection
Continuous with auto-restart
INPUT SPECIFICATION
Input voltage range
90 to 264 VAC
Input frequency range
47Hz to 63Hz
Inrush current
130A
Input harmonic current
Comply with IEC 1000-3-2
Safety ground
110 VAC,60Hz
0.2mA
Leakage current
230 VAC,50Hz
0.4mA
EMC SPECIFICATIONS
EMI/RFI
EN55022
CLASS B
FCC PART 15
CLASS B
ESD
IEC801-2
Level 3
EFT/Burst
IEC801-4
Level 3
Line transient
IEC801-5
Level 3
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Hold-up time
110VAC/230VAC
6mS
Efficiency
90% typical at 230 VAC
Isolation voltage
Input/output 3000 VAC
Switching frequency
Fixed
Approvals and Safety standards
EN60950, VDE0805, CE, CSA C22.2
No.950,IEC 950,UL 1950
Case Material
General Electric Lexan,Black
Flammability rated
UL 94V-0
Weight
900g
MTBF
MIL-HDBK-217F
150,000Hrs
ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
Thermal performance
Operating full Load,no derating
Non-operating
0℃to+40℃
-40℃to +85℃
Relative humidity
Non-condensing
5% to 95% RH
Altitude
Operating
Non-operating
10,000 feet max
30,000 feet max
Vibration 5Hz to 500Hz
Three orthogonal axes random vibration,
10 minutes test for each axis
2.4G rms

Development of Adapter Topologies

   

Power stage of a flyback PFC AC-DC converter.

Power stage of a bi-flyback PFC AC-DC converter.

Flyback PFC AC-DC converter with auxiliary switch.

Flyback PFC AC-DC converter with folded-back energy recovery. [Fernandez 1999]

 
Combined buck-flyback PFC AC-DC converter.

 

Single-Stage Single-Switch AC-DC Converters

U3854 for a 250W Boost PFC Preregulator

 

REFERENCES

Introduction and Survey of S4 PFC Converters

  1. Chongming Qiao and K.M. Smedley, "A topology survey of single-stage power factor corrector with a boost type input-current-shaper," IEEE APEC Conf. Rec., pp.460-467, 2000.
  2. Z. Lai and K. Smedley, “A family of power-factor-correction controllers,” IEEE APEC Conf. Rec., pp.66-73, 1997.
  3. J. Sebastian, M. Jaureguizar, and J. Uceda, "An overview of power factor correction in single-phase off-line power supply systems," IEEE IECON Conf. Rec., 1994.

S4 Current Shaping AC/DC Converters

  1. F. Tsai, P. Markowski and E. Whitcomb, “Off-line flyback converter with input harmonic current correction”, IEEE International Telecommunications Energy Conference, pp.120-124, 1996.
  2. L. Huber and M, Jovanovic, "Single-stage, single-switch, isolated power supply technique with input-current shaping and fast output-voltage regulation for universal input-voltage-range applications”, IEEE APEC Conf. Rec., pp.272-280, 1997.
  3. L. Huber and M. Jovanovic, "Design optimization of single-stage, single-switch input-current shapers”, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 519-526, 1997.
  4. J. Sebastian, M. M. Hernando, P. Villegas, J. Diaz, and Fonkin, "Input current shaper based on the series connection of a voltage source and a loss-free resistor," IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, pp.461-467, 1998.
  5. M. Daniele, P. Jain, and G. Joos, "A single stage power factor corrected AC/DC converter”, IEEE International Telecommunications Energy Conference, pp.256-262, 1996.
  6. M. Daniele, P. Jain, and G. Joos, "A single stage power factor corrected AC/DC converter”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1046-1052, pp. 487-496, Nov. 1999.

S4 Step-Down PFC AC/DC Converters

  1. O. Garcia, J. A. Cobos, P. Alou, R. Prieto, and J. Uceda, "A simple single-switch single-stage ac/dc converter with fast output voltage regulation," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 111-116, 1999.
  2. A. Fernandez, J. Sebastian, P. Villegas, and M. M. Hernando, "One stage, fast response, buck based ac-to-dc converter with active input current shaping," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 99-104, 1999.
  3. M. M. Kheraluwala, R. L. Steigerwald, R. Gurumoorthy, "Fast response high power factor converter with a single power stage," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., 1991.

Modeling of PFC AC/DC Converters

  1. R. D. Middlebrook, "Small-signal modeling of pulse-width modulated switched-mode power converters," IEEE Proc., vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 343-354, April 1988.
  2. R. D. Middlebrook, "Modeling current programmed Buck and Boost converters," IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 4, pp. 36-52, January 1989.
  3. V. Voperian, "Simplified analysis of PWM converters using model of PWM switch, part I: continuous conduction mode, and part II: discontinuous conduction mode," IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 490-496 and pp. 497-505, May 1990.
  4. R. B. Ridley, "Average small-signal analysis of the boost power factor correction circuit," Proc. 10th Ann. Virgina Power Electronics Center Seminar, pp. 108-120, 1989.
  5. F. A. Huliehel, F. C. Lee, and B. H. Cho, "Small-signal modeling of the single-phase boost high power factor converter with constant frequency control," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 475-482, 1992.
  6. K. Mahabir, G. Verghese, J. Thottuvelil, and A. Heyman, "Linear averaged and sampled data models for large signal control of high power factor AC-DC converters," IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., pp. 372-381, 1990.
  7. T. C. Chen and P. C. Pan, "Modelling and design of a single-phase AC to DC converter," IEE Proc. Pt. B, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 465-470, Sept. 1992.
  8. S. Wall and R. Jackson, "Large signal models and control design for high power-factor preconditioners," Proc. EPE, Brighton, 1993.
  9. N. Femia and V. Tucci, "On the modeling of PWM converters for the large signal analysis in discontinuous conduction mode," IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 9, pp. 487-496, Sept. 1994.
  10. Guangyong Zhu, Huai Wei, Peter Kornetzky, and Issa Batarseh, "Small-signal modeling of a single-switch AC/DC power-factor-correction circuit," IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1142-1148, Nov. 1999.

 


交通大學電力電子與運動控制實驗室

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E-mail: pemclab808@gmail.com
Department of Electrical and Control Engineering
National Chiao Tung University
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